Monday, August 18, 2014

Amphitrite



Today I am going to write about Amphitrite. Lets begin with this post. In ancient Greek mythology, Amphitrite (Ἀμφιτρίτη) was a sea-goddess and wife of Poseidon. Under the influence of the Olympian pantheon, she became merely yhr consort of Poseidon, and was further diminished by poets to a symbolic representation of the sea. In Roman mythology, the consort of Neptune, a comparatively minor figure, was Salacia, the goddess of saltwater.  Amphitrite was a daughter of Nereus and Doris (and thus a Nereid) according to Hesiod's Theogony, but of Oceanus and Tethys (and thus an Oceanid) according to the Bibliotheca, which actually lists her among both the Nereids and the Oceanids. Others called her the personification of the sea itself (saltwater). One of Amphitrite's Oceanid sisters is Perse, (wife of Helios). Amphitrite's offspring included seals and dolphins. Poseidon and Amphitrite had a son, Triton who was a merman, and a daughter, Rhode (if this Rhonde was not actually fathered by Poseidon on Halia or was not the daughter of Asopus as others claim). Bibliotheca (3.15.4) also mentions a daughter of Poseidon and Amphitrite named Bethesikyme. Amphitrite is not fully personified in the Homeric epics: "out on the open sea, in Amphitrite's breakers" (Odyssey iii.101) "moaning Amphitrite" nourishes fishes "in numbers past all counting" (Odyssey xii 119). She shares her Homeric epithet Halosydne ("sea-nourished") with Thetis in some sense the sea-nymphs are doublets. Though Amphitrite does not figure in Greek cultus, at an archaic stage she was outstanding importance, for in the Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo, she appears at the birthing of Apollo among "all the chiefest of the goddess, Dione and Rhea and Ichnaea and Themis and loud-moaning Amphitrite." Theseus in the submarine halls of his father Poseidon saw the daughters of Nereus dancing with liquid feet, and "august ox-eyed Amphitrite" who wreathed him with her wedding wreath, according to a fragment of Bacchylides. Jane Ellen Harrison recognized in the poetic treatment an authentic echo of Amphitrite's early importance: "It would have been much simpler for Poseidon to recognize his own son... the myth belongs to that early stratum of mythology when Poseidon was not yet god of the sea, or, at least, no-wise supreme there - Amphitrite and the Nereids ruled there, with their servants the Tritons. Even so late at the Illiad Amphitrite is not yet 'Neptuni uxor'"[Neptune's wife]." Amphitrite, "the third one who encircles [the sea]" was so entirely confined in her authority to the sea and the creatures in it that she was almost never associated with her husband, either for purposes of worship or in works of art, except when he was to be distinctly regarded as the gods who controlled the sea. An exception may be the cult image of Amphitrite that Pausanias saw in  the temple of Poseidon at the Isthmus of Corinth (ii 1.7). Pindar, in his sixth Olympian Ode, recognized Poseidon's role as "great god of the sea, husband of Amphitrite, goddess of the golden spindle." For later poets, Amphitrite became simply a metaphor for the sea: Euripides, in Cyclops (720) and Ovid, Metamorphoses (i.14). Eustathius said that Poseidon first saw her dancing at Naxos among other Nereids, and carried her off. But in another version of the myth, she fled from his advances to Atlas, at the farthest ends of the sea; there the dolphin of Poseidon sought her trough the islands of the sea, and finding her, spoke persuasively on behalf of Poseidon, if we may believe Hyginus and was rewarded by being placed among the stars as the constellation Delphinus. In the arts of vase-painting and mosaic, Amphitrite was distinguishable from the other Nerids only be her queenly attributes. In works of art, both ancient ones and post-Renaissance paintings, Amphitrite is represented either enthroned beside Poseidon or driving with hi in a chariot drawn by sea-horses (hippocampus) or other fabulous creatures of the deep, and attended by Tritons and Nerids. She is dressed in queenly robes and has nets in her hair. The pincers of a crab are sometimes shown attached to her temples. Amphitrite is the name of a genus of the worm family Terebellidae. In poetry, Amphitrite's name is often used for the sea, as a synonym of the Thalassa. Seven ships of the Royal Navy were named HMS Amphitrite, including Amphitrite (1804). At least one ship of the Royal Netherlands Navy was named HM Amphitrite (corvette, in service 1830s). Three ships of the United States Navy were named USS Amphitrite. An asteroid, 29 Amphitrite is named for her. In 1936 Australia used an image of Amphitrite on a poster stamp as a classical allusion for the submarine communications cable across Bass Strait from Apollo Bay, Victoria to Stanley, Tasmania. The name of the former Greek Royal Yacht. Amphitrite Pool, a shallow ceremonial pool on the grounds of the United States Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New York contains a statue of Amphitrite. When First Classmen are taking their Third Mate or Third Assistant Engineer License Examination, it is considered good luck if they bounce a coin off Amphitrite into a seashell at her feet. Amphitrite is featured in a puzzle in the PlayStation 2 game God of War as Poseidon's faithful wife, in which statue of her is pointing towards the solution to the puzzle, the exit of the room. Amphitrite appears as a minor character in The Last Olympian by Rick Riordan. She is seen in Poseidon's underwater palace. Amphitrite is somewhat cold towards the series' protagonist, Percy Jackson, who is her stepson. Well that is it my post on Amphitrite I hope you liked it and if you liked this post then please follow my blog to learn more about Amphitrite then you can go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphitrite and that is also where I got my information for my post as well.   

Sunday, August 17, 2014

The Bremen Town Musicians

                The Bremen Town Musicians

There was once an ass whose master had made him carry sacks to the mill for many a long year, but whose
strength began at last to fail, so that each day as it came found him less capable of work. Then his master
began to think of turning him out, but the ass, guessing that something was in the wind that boded him no good
, ran away, taking the road to Bremen; for there he thought he might get an engagement as town musician. When
 he had gone a little way he found a hound lying by the side of the road panting, as if he had run a long way.
 "Now, Holdfast, what are you so out of breath about?" said the ass. "Oh dear!" said the dog, "now I am old,
I get weaker every day, and can do no good in the hunt, so, as my master was going to have me killed, I have
made my escape; but now, how am I to gain a living?" - "I will tell you what," said the ass, "I am going to
Bremen to become town musician. You may as well go with me, and take up music too. I can play the lute, and
you can beat the drum." And the dog consented, and they walked on together. It was not long before they came
to a cat sitting in the road, looking as dismal as three wet days. "Now then, what is the matter with you,
old shaver?" said the ass. "I should like to know who would be cheerful when his neck is in danger," answered
the cat. "Now that I am old my teeth are getting blunt, and I would rather sit by the oven and purr than run
about after mice, and my mistress wanted to drown me; so I took myself off; but good advice is scarce, and
I do not know what is to become of me." - "Go with us to Bremen," said the ass, "and become town musician.
You understand serenading." The cat thought well of the idea, and went with them accordingly. After that the
three travellers passed by a yard, and a cock was perched on the gate crowing with all his might. "Your cries
are enough to pierce bone and marrow," said the ass; "what is the matter?" - "I have foretold good weather for
 Lady-day, so that all the shirts may be washed and dried; and now on Sunday morning company is coming, and
the mistress has told the cook that I must be made into soup, and this evening my neck is to be wrung, so that
 I am crowing with all my might while I can." - "You had much better go with us, Chanticleer," said the ass.
"We are going to Bremen. At any rate that will be better than dying. You have a powerful voice, and when we
are all performing together it will have a very good effect." So the cock consented, and they went on all four
 together.But Bremen was too far off to be reached in one day, and towards evening they came to a wood, where
they determined to pass the night. The ass and the dog lay down under a large tree; the cat got up among the
branches, and the cock flew up to the top, as that was the safest place for him. Before he went to sleep he
looked all round him to the four points of the compass, and perceived in the distance a little light shining,
and he called out to his companions that there must be a house not far off, as he could see a light, so the
ass said, "We had better get up and go there, for these are uncomfortable quarters." The dog began to fancy a
few bones, not quite bare, would do him good. And they all set off in the direction of the light, and it grew
larger and brighter, until at last it led them to a robber's house, all lighted up. The ass. being the biggest,
 went up to the window, and looked in. "Well, what do you see?" asked the dog. "What do I see?" answered the
ass; "here is a table set out with splendid eatables and drinkables, and robbers sitting at it and making
themselves very comfortable." - "That would just suit us," said the cock. "Yes, indeed, I wish we were there,"
 said the ass. Then they consulted together how it should be managed so as to get the robbers out of the house
, and at last they hit on a plan. The ass was to place his forefeet on the window-sill, the dog was to get on
the ass's back, the cat on the top of the dog, and lastly the cock was to fly up and perch on the cat's head.
 When that was done, at a given signal they all began to perform their music. The ass brayed, the dog barked,
the cat mewed, and the cock crowed; then they burst through into the room, breaking all the panes of glass.
The robbers fled at the dreadful sound; they thought it was some goblin, and fled to the wood in the utmost
terror. Then the four companions sat down to table, made free with the remains of the meal, and feasted as if
they had been hungry for a month.And when they had finished they put out the lights, and each sought out a
sleeping-place to suit his nature and habits. The ass laid himself down outside on the dunghill, the dog
behind the door, the cat on the hearth by the warm ashes, and the cock settled himself in the cockloft, and as
 they were all tired with their long journey they soon fell fast asleep. When midnight drew near, and the
robbers from afar saw that no light was burning, and that everything appeared quiet, their captain said to
them that he thought that they had run away without reason, telling one of them to go and reconnoitre. So one
of them went, and found everything quite quiet; he went into the kitchen to strike a light, and taking the
glowing fiery eyes of the cat for burning coals, he held a match to them in order to kindle it. But the cat,
not seeing the joke, flew into his face, spitting and scratching. Then he cried out in terror, and ran to get
out at the back door, but the dog, who was lying there, ran at him and bit his leg; and as he was rushing
through the yard by the dunghill the ass struck out and gave him a great kick with his hind foot; and the
cock, who had been wakened with the noise, and felt quite brisk, cried out, "Cock-a-doodle-doo!" Then the
robber got back as well as he could to his captain, and said, "Oh dear! in that house there is a gruesome
witch, and I felt her breath and her long nails in my face; and by the door there stands a man who stabbed
me in the leg with a knife; and in the yard there lies a black spectre, who beat me with his wooden club;
and above, upon the roof, there sits the justice, who cried, 'Bring that rogue here!' And so I ran away from
 the place as fast as I could." From that time forward the robbers never ventured to that house, and the four
Bremen town musicians found themselves so well off where they were, that there they stayed. And the person
 who last related this tale is still living, as you see.
The End
By:The Brothers Grimm

Saturday, August 16, 2014

Nüwa




Today I am going to write about the Nuwa, I hope that you will like this post. So lets begin. Nüwa (also Nyuwa, Nuwa, Nu-wa, and Nügua; simplified Chinese: 女娲 pinyin: Nǚwā Wade-Giles: Nu-wa) is a goddess, in ancient mythology best known for creating mankind and repairing the wall of heaven. Depending on the source, she might be considered the second of even the first Chinese ruler, with most sources not putting her role, but only her brother and/or husband Fu Xi. The legend of Nuwa is told in many ancient texts. The Shan Hai Jing dated between the Warring States period and the Han Dynasty, describes Nuwa's intestines as being scattered into ten spirits. In Liezi (c. 475 - 221 BC) Chapter 5 "Questions of Tang" (Chinese:卷第五 湯問篇) author Lie Yukou describes Nuwa repairing the original imperfect heaven using five-colored stones, and cutting the legs off a tortoise to use as struts to hold up the sky. In Songs of Chu (c, 340 - 278 BC) Chapter 3 "Asking Heaven" (Chinese: 问天) author Qu Yuan writes the Nuwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children. After demons fought and broke the pillars of the heavens, Nuwa worked unceasingly to repair the damage, melting down to the five-colored stones to mend the heavens. In Huqinanzi (c. 179 - 122 BC); Chapter 6 Lanmingxun (Chinese:覽冥訓) author Liu An tells that in remote antiquity the four poles of the universe collapsed and the world descended into chaos; the firament was no longer able to cover everything and the earth was no longer able to support itself; fires burned wild and waters flooded the land; fierce beasts ate common people, and ferocious birds attacked the old and the weak. So Nuwa tempered the five-colored stones to mend the heavens, cut off the feet of the great turtle to support the four poles, killed the black dragon to help the earth, and gathered the ash of reed to stop the flood. (In a various of this  tale, the four corners of the sky collapsed and the world with its nine regions split open.) In Shuowen Jiezi (c. 58 - 147 AD) China's earliest dictionary, under the entry for Nuwa author Xu Shen describes her as being both the sister and the wife of Fu Xi. Nuwa and Fu Xi were pictured as having snake like tails interlocked in an Eastern Han Dynasty mural in the Wuliang Temple in Jiaxiang county, Shandong province. In Duyi Zhi (Chinese: 獨異志 c. 846 - 874 AD) Volume 3, author Li Rong gives this description. "Long ago, when the world first began, there were two people, Nu Kua and her older brother. They lived on Mount K'un-lun. And there were not yet any ordinary people in the world. They talked about becoming husband and wife, but they felt ashamed. So the brother at once went with his sister up Mount Ku'un-lun and made this prayer: "Oh Heaven, if Thou wouldst send us two forth as man and wife, then make all the misty vapor gather. If not, then make all the misty vapor disperse." At this, the misty vapor immediately gathered. When the sister became intimate with her brother, they plaited some grass to make a fan to screen their faces. Even today, when a man takes a wife, they hold a fan, which is a symbol of what happened long ago." In Yuchuan Ziji (Chinese:玉川子集 c. 618 - 97 AD) Chapter 3 (Chinese: "與馬異結交詩" 也稱 "女媧本是伏羲婦" pinyin: "Yu Mayi Jie Jiao Shi" YeCheng "Nuwa ben shi Fu Xi fu") author Lu Tong describes Nuwa as the wife of Fu Xi. In Siku Quanshu, Sima Zhen (679-732) provides commentary on the prologue chapter to Sima Qian's Shiji, "Supplemental to the Historic Record: History of the Three August Ones" wherein it is found that the Thee August Ones are Nuwa, Fu Xi, and Shennog' Fu Xi and Nuwa have the same last name, Feng (Chinese: 風) Note: Sima Zhen's commentary is included with the later Siku Quanshu copiled by Ji Yun and Lu Xixiong. In the collection Four Great Books of Song (c. 96 -1279 AD) compiled by Li Fang and others, Volume 78 of the book Imperial Readings of the Taping Era contains a chapter "Customs by Yingshao of the Han Dynasty" in which it is stated that there were no men when they sky and the earth were separated. Thus Nuwa used yellow clay to make people. But the clay was not strong enough so she put ropes into the clay to make the bodies erect. It id also said that she prayed to the gods to let her be the goddess of marital affairs. Variations of this story exist. Since Nuwa is presented differently in so many myths/legends, it is not accurate to tie her down as a creator, mother, or goddess. Depending on the myth, she is responsible for being a wife, sister, man, tribal leader (or even empress) creator, maintainer, ect. It is not clear fro the evidence which view came first. Regardless of the origins, most myths resent Nuwa as female in a procreative role after a calamity. She was also known as the creator of humans through clay but there has been many theories to this. The earliest literary role seems to be the maintenance of the Wall of Heaven, whose collapse would obliterate everything. There was a quarrel between two of the more powerful gods. Gong Gong and Zhu Rong and they decided to settle it with fists. When the water god, Gong Gong, saw that he was losing, he smashed his head against Mount Buzhou (不周山) a pillar holding up the sky. The pillar collapsed and caused the sky to tilt towards the northwest and the earth to shift to the southeast. This caused great calamities, such as raging fires, vast floods, and the appearance of fierce man-eating beasts. Nuwa cut off the legs of  giant tortoise and used them to supplant the fallen pillar, alleviating the situation and sealing the broken sky using stones of seven different colors, but she was unable to fully correct the tilted sky. This explains the phenomenon of that sun, moon, and stars move towards the northwest, and that rivers in China flow southeast into the Pacific Ocean. Other versions of the story describe Nuwa going up to heaven and filling the gap with her body (half human half serpent) and thus stopping the flood. According to this legend some of the minorities in South-Western China hail Nuwa as their goddess and some festivals such as the 'Water-Splashing Festival' are in part a tribute to her sacrifices. Nüwa is also depicted as a creator deity. However, not many stories ascribe to her creation of everything; they usually confine her to the creation of humanity. A legend states that Nüwa existed in the beginning of the world. She felt lonely as there were no animals, so she began to create animals and humans. On the first day she created chickens; on the second dogs; on the third, sheep; on the fourth pigs; on the fifth cows; on the sixth, horses; and on the seventh, humanity. She began creating human beings from yellow clay, sculpting each one individually. After she had created hundreds of figures in this way, she still had more to make but has grown tired of the laborious process. So instead of handcrafting each figure, she dipped a rope in clay and flicked it so blobs of clay landed everywhere; each of these blobs became a common person. Nüwa still laboriously crafted some people out of clay; these people became nobles. By the Han Dynasty, she is described in literature with her brother Fu Xi as the first of the Three August Ones and Five Emperors. Paintings depicting them joined as half people-half serpent or dragon date to the Warring States period Nüwa and Fu Xi are also found under different names (Nkauj Mauam and Nraug Nus) as originators of mankind thorough an act of incest after the Flood in legends and myths of the Miao people. Paintings of  Nüwa and her consort Fu Xi date to the Warring States period. Herbert James Allen erroneously translated Tang Dynasty historian Sima Zhen's interpolated prologue to the the Han dynasty Sima Qian's Shiji. In one of his more serious flaws, Nüwa was described as male even though the Nu ((女) in the name means female and the wa (媧) also contains the female radical. Nüwa is featured within the famed Ming dynasty novel Fengshen Bang. As featured within this novel, Nüwa is very highly respected since the time of the Xia Dynasty for being the daughter of the Jade Emperor; Nüwa is also regularly called the "Snake Goddess." After the Shang Dynasty had been created, Nüwa created the five-colored stones to protect the dynasty with occasional seasonal rains and other enhancing qualities. Thus in time, Shang Rong asked King Zhou of Shang to pay her a visit as a sign of deep respect. After Zhou was completely overcome with lust at the very sight of the beautiful ancient goddess Nüwa (who had been sitting behind a light curtain) he would write a small poem on a neighboring wall and take his leave. When Nüwa later returned to her temple after visiting the Yellow Emperor, Nüwa would see the foulness of Zhou's words. In her anger, she swore that Shang Dynasty will end in payment for his foulness. In her rage, Nüwa would personally ascended to the palace in an attempt to kill the king, but was suddenly struck back by two large beams of red light. After Nüwa realized that King Zhou was already destined to rule the kingdom for twenty-six more years, Nüwa would summon her three subordinates - the Thousand Year Vixen (later becoming Daji) the Jade Pipa, and the Nine-Headed Pheasant. With these words, Nüwa would bring destined chaos to the Shang Dynasty, "The luck Cheng Tang won six hundred years ago is dimming. I speak to you of a new mandate of heaven which sets the destiny for all. You thee are to enter King Zhou's palace, where you are to bewitch him. Whatever you do, do not harm anyone else. If you do mu bidding and do it well, you will be permitted to reincarnate as human beings." Thus, with these words, Nüwa would never be heard of again, but would still be a major indirect factor towards the Shang Dynasty's fail. I hope that you liked this post on Nuwa then please follow my blog if you would like to know more about Nuwa then you can go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuwa that is also where I got my information as well. 

Thursday, August 14, 2014

Danaus



Today I am going to write about Danaus, lets begin with this post. In Greek mythology Danaus (Ancient Greek:Δαναός Danaos) was the twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Achicore and Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. The myth of Danaus is a foundation legend (or re-foundation legend) of Argos, one the foremost Mycenaean cities of the Peloponnesus. In Homer's Iliad, "Dannaana" ("tribe pf Danae") and "Argives" commonly designate the Greek forces opposed to the Trojans.  Danaus had fifity daughters, the Danaides, twelve of whom were born to Polyxo and the rest to Pieria and other women, and his twin brother, Aegyptus had fifty sons. Aegpptus commanded that his sons marry the Danaides. Danaus elected to flee instead, and to that purpose, he built a ship, the first ship that every was. In it, he fled to Argos, to which he was connected by his descent from Io, a priestess of Hera at Argos, who was wooed by Zeus and turned into a heifer and pursued by Hera until she found asylum in Egypt. Argos at the time was ruled by Kinf Pelasgus, the eponym of all autochthonous inhabitants who had lived in Greece since the beginning, also called Gelanor ("he who laughs"). The Danaides askes Pelasgus for protection when they arrived, the event portrayed in The Suppliants by Aeschylus. Protection was granted after a vote by the Argives. When Pausanias visited Argos in the 2ed century CE, he related the succession of Danaus to the throne, judged by the Argives, who "from the earliest times.....have loved freedom and self-government, and they limited to the utmost the authority of their kings:" "On coming to Argos he claimed the kingdom against Gelanor, the son of Sthenelas. Many plausiblr arguments were brought forward by both parties, and those of Sthenelas were considered as fair as those of his opponent; so the people, who were sitting in judgement, put off, they say, the decision to the following day. At dawn a wolf fell upon a herd of oxen that was pasturing before the wall, and attacked and fought with the bull that was the leader of the herd. It occurred to the Argives that Gelanor was like the bull and Danays like the wolf, for as the wolf will not live with men, so Danaus up to that time had not lived with them. It was because the wolf overcame the bull that Danaus won the kingdom. Accordingly, believing that Apollo had brought the wolf on the herd, he founded a sanctuary of Apollo Lycius." The sanctuary of Apollo Lykeios ("wolf-Apollo" but also Apollo of the twilight) was still the most prominent feature of Argos in Pausanias' time: in the sanctuary the tourist might see the throne of Danaus himself, an eternal flame called the fire of Phoronius. When Aegyptus and his fifty sons arrived to take the Danaides, Danaus gave them, to spare the Argives the pain of a battle. However, he instructed his daughters to kill their husbands on their wedding night. Forty-nine followed through, and subsequently buried the heads of their bridegrooms in Lerna; but one, Hypermnestra, refused because her husband, Lynceus, honored her wish to remain a virgin. Danaus was angry with his disobedient daughter and threw her to the Argive courts. Aphrodite intervened and saved her. Lynceus and Hypermnestra then began a dynasty of Argive kings (the Danaid Dynasty). Some sources relate that Amymone, the "blameless" Danaid and/or Bryce/or (Bebryce) also spared their husbands. Aegptus, after the death of his sons, escaped to Aroe in Greece and died there. His monument was shown in the temple of Serapis at Patrae. In some versions, Lynceus later killed Danaus as revenge for the death of his brothers. The remaining forty-nine Dandides had their grooms finished decided their brides (comapre the myth of Atalanta). Two of the grooms were Archander and Architeles, sons of Achaeus: they married Scaea and Automate respectively. In later accounts, the Danaides were punished in Tartarus by being forced to carry water in a jug to fill a bath without bottom (or with a leak) and thereby wash off their sins, but the bath was never filled because the water was always leaking out. Even a cautious reading of the subtext as a vehicle for legendary history suggests that a Pelasgian ingship in archaic Argos was overcome, not without vioence, by seafarers out of Egypt (compare the Sea Peoples) whose leaders then intermarried with the local dynasty. The descendants of Danaus' "blameless" daughter Hypermnestra, through Danae led to Perseus, founder of Mycenae, thus suggesting that Argos has a claim to be the "mother city" of Mycenae. Another account of the travels of Danaus gave him three daughters, Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos, who were worshipped in the cities that took their names on the islands of Rhodes, Ialysos, Kamiros and Lindos (but see also Cercaphus). According to Rhodian mythographers who informed Diodorus Siculus, Danaus would have stopped and founded a sanctuary to Athena Lindia on the way fro Egypt to Greece. Herodotus heard that the temple at Lindos was founded by Danaus' daughters. Ken Dowden observes that once the idea is dismissed that myth is directly nattating the movements of historical persons, that the loci of Danaian insitions at Lindos in Rhodes as well as at Argos suggests a Mycenaean colony sent to Rhodes from the Argliod, a tradition, in fact, that Strabo reports. The epic Danais was written by one of the cyclic poets; the name of the author and the narration of these events does not survive, but the Danaid tetralogy of Aeschylus undoubtedly draws upon its material. It is represented in the table of epics in the received cannnon on the very fragmentary "Bordia table" as "Danaides." A U.S. federal judge used the version of the legend in which the Danaides are forced to perform an impossible task as a simile for the judge's task of determining whether a case "arises under" the Constitution laws or treaties of the United States. I hope that you liked this post, if you have a request then please feel free to give me your request I always take request and would be happy to write a request for you. If you would like to know more about Danaus then you can go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danaus that is also where I got my information!

Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Hippalectryon




Today I am going to write about the Hippalectryon a strange mythical creature that I like. So lets begin with this post. A hippalectryon (or hippaletryon, from Greek ἱππαλεκτρυών) is a type of fantastic hybrid creature of Ancient Greek folklore, half-horse and half-rooster, with yellow feathers. The front half is that of a horse, the rear half a roster's wings, tail and legs. The oldest representation currently known dates back to the 9th century BCE, and the motif grows most common in the 6th century, notably in vase painting and sometimes as statues, often shown with a rider. It is also featured on some pieces of currency. A few literary works of the 5th century mention the beast, though no myths related to it are currently known. The term "hippalectryon" also transcribed "hippalektryon" comes directly from Ancient Greek "ἱππαλεκτρυών" a compound word that comprises ἵππος (hippos, "horse") and ἀλεκτρυών (alektryốn "rooster.") The name is thus a plain description of the hybrid creature. In The Birds, Aristophanes describes the hippalectryon as a yellow-feathered, awkward-looking creature. The appearance of the creature is consistent amongst the known artistic representations. It involves a horse front part, including the head, withers and the front legs; the hind part is that of a rooster, including the wings, tail and legs. A text attributed to Hesychius of Alexandria mentions three different types of hippalectryons: a giant rooster; a giant vulture; and a creature close to griffins as painted on fabrics from Persia. Some confusion might have arisen, as some texts also refer to hippalectryons as plain horses, a coat-of-arms, or as sea monsters. Before Aeschylus, no specific term appears to refer to representations of hippalectryons. The oldest known representation of a hippalectryon is an askos from Knossos, dating back to the 9th century BCE. Hippalectryons become a common theme from 575 to 480 BCE, often depicted with an unarmed rider, typically a young boy. The motif might not be an ancient Greek invention: an analysis of Aristophanes' works suggests that it could have originated in the Middle East, and the costumes worn by the people featured on pottery with hippalectryons seem to be Asian, though this particular point is a matter or debate. Hippalectryons are displayed almost exclusively on black-figure vases from Attica, and could constitute an alternative representation of Pegasus. Hybrids are a popular and common theme in archaic Greek sculpture and vase painting. Most hybrids appear to have reached Greece from the East, although no early representation of a hippalectryon in Egyptian or Middle Eastern art has yet been found. Hippalectryons have been found on engraved stones from the Late Period of ancient Egypt. Though they differ from 6th century Attic and Ionic representations, the horse head and the rooster legs and tail are featured. Five coins featuring a hippalectryon, or possibly Pegasus, were found in 1868 in the Volterra treasure, amongst 65 very old pieces of currency. According to a study of Aristophanes' The Frogs, hippalectryons were often painted on shields. A red-figure vase featuring Athena waving a shield sporting a hipplectryon has been found; the theme probably was credited with apotropaic and prophylactic virtues. Roosters are prophylactic as they are a symbol of solar power that routs demons with its singing at sunrise. Horses, especially winged horses, are a funerary symbol as they guide the souls of the dead. The grotesque and ugly hybrid supposedly induced laughter, thereby driving evil away. The Hippalectryon described in Aeschylus' Myrmidons was probably sculpted to commemorate a naval high deed. In The Frogs, Aristophanes states that the motif was painted on galleys in ancient times, indicating that it could have been credited with magical powers to protect ships. Hippalectryons are not associated with any known myth or legend. As a consequence, they are scarcely mentioned by Greek authors. Aeschylus is the first to mention them: in Myrmidons, he describes a ship featuring a "fire-colored horse-chanticleer." "The figure of a hippalectryon is featured on Protesilalaos' ship: one can the laborious work performed on paintings (...)"  I hope that you liked this post on the Hippalectryon if you liked this post then please follow my blog and feel free to share this blog with friends and family. If you would like to know more about the hippalectryon then you can go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippalectryon that is also where I got my information for this post.      












Monday, August 11, 2014

The Star-Money

                               The Star-Money

There was once on a time a little girl whose father and mother were dead, and she was so poor that she no
longer had any little room to live in, or bed to sleep in, and at last she had nothing else but the clothes
she was wearing and a little bit of bread in her hand which some charitable soul had given her. She was,
however, good and pious. And as she was thus forsaken by all the world, she went forth into the open country,
trusting in the good God.Then a poor man met her, who said: "Ah, give me something to eat, I am so hungry!"
She reached him the whole of her piece of bread, and said: "May God bless it to thy use," and went onwards.
Then came a child who moaned and said: "My head is so cold, give me something to cover it with." So she took
off her hood and gave it to him; and when she had walked a little farther, she met another child who had no
jacket and was frozen with cold. Then she gave it her own; and a little farther on one begged for a frock,
and she gave away that also. At length she got into a forest and it had already become dark, and there came
yet another child, and asked for a little shirt, and the good little girl thought to herself: "It is a dark
night and no one sees thee, thou canst very well give thy little shirt away," and took it off, and gave away
that also.And as she so stood, and had not one single thing left, suddenly some stars from heaven fell down,
and they were nothing else but hard smooth pieces of money, and although she had just given her little shirt
away, she had a new one which was of the very finest linen. Then she gathered together the money into this,
and was rich all the days of her life.

The End
By: The Brother's Grimm

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Foof Fighter



Today I am going to write about Foo Fighters lets begin with my post. The term food fighter was used by Allied aircraft pilots in World War II to describe various UFOs or mysterious aerial phenomena seen in the skies over both the European and Pacific theaters of operations. Though "food fighter" initally described as a type of UFO reported and named by the U.S. 415 Night Fighter Squadron, the term was also commonly used to mean any UFO sighting from that period. Formally reported from November 1944 onwards, witnesses often assumed that the foo fighters were secret weapons employed by the enemy. The Robert Panel explored possible explanations, for instance that they were electrostatic phenomena similar to St. Elmo's fire, electromagentic phenomena, or simply reflections of light from ice crystals. The nonsense word "foo" emerged in popular culture during the early 1930s, first being used by cartoonist Bill Holman who peppered in his Smokey Stover fireman cartoon strips with "foo" signs and puns. The term foo was borrowed from Bill Holman's Smokey Stover by a radar operator in the 415th Night Fighter Squadron, Donald J. Meiers, who it is agreed by most 415th members gave the foo fighters their name. Meiers was from Chicago and was an avid reader of Bill Holman's strip which was run daily in the Chicago Tribune. Smokey Stover's catch phrase was "where there's foo, there's fire." In a mission debriefing on the evening November 27, 1944, Fritz Ringwald, the unit's S-2 Intelligence Officer, stated that Meiers and Ed Schleuter had sighted a red ball of fire that appeared to chase them through a variety of high-speed maneuvers. Fritz said that Meiers was extremely agitated and had a copy of the comic strip tucked in his back pocket. He pulled it out and slammed it down on Fritz's desk and said, "... it was another one of those fuckin' foo fighter!" and stormed out of the debriefing room. According to Fritz Ringwald, because of the lack of a better name, it stuck. And this was originally what the men of the 315th started calling these incidents: "Fuckin' Foo Fighters." In December 1944, a press correspondent from the Associated Press in Paris, Bob Wilson, was sent to the 416th at their base outside of Dijon, France to investigate this story. It was at this time that the term was cleaned up to just "foo fighters." The unit commander, Capt. Harold Augsperger, also decided to shorten  the term to foo fighters in the unit's historical data. The first sightings occurred in November 1944, when pilots flying over Germany by night reported seeing fast-moving round glowing objects following their aircraft. The objects were variously described as fiery, and glowing red, white, or orange. Some pilots described them as resembling Christmas tree lights and reported that they seemed to toy with the aircraft, making wild turns before simply vanishing. Pilots and aircrew reported that the objects flew formation with their aircraft and behaved as if under intelligent control, but never displayed hostile behavior. However, they could not be outmaneuvered or shot down. The phenomenon was so widespread that the lights earned a name - in the European Theater of Operations they were often called "kraut fireballs" but for the most part called "foo-fighters." The military took the sightings seriously, suspecting that the mysteriously sightings might be secret German weapons, but further investigation revealed that German and Japanese pilots had reported similar sightings. On 13 December 1944, the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force in Paris issued a press release, which was featured in the New York Times the next day, officially describing the phenomenon as a "new German weapon." Follow-up stories, using the term "Foo Fighters" appeared in the New York Herald Tribune and the British Daily Telegraph. In its 15 January 1945 edition Time magazine carried a story entitled "Foo-Fighter" in which it reported that the "balls of fire" had been following USAAF night fighters for over a month, and that the pilots agreed that the mysterious lights followed the aircraft closely at high speed. Some scientist at the time rationalized the sightings as an illusion probably caused by afterimages of dazzle caused by flak bursts, while other suggested St. Elmo's Fire as an explanation. The "balls of fire" phenomenon reported from the Pacific Theater of Operations differed somewhat from the foo fighters reported from Europe; the "ball of fire" resembled a large burning sphere which "just hung in the sky" though it was reported to sometimes follow aircraft. On one occasion, the gunner of a B-29 aircraft manged to hit one with gunfire, causing it to break up into several large pieces which fell on buildings below and set them on fire. There was speculation that the phenomena could be related to the Japanese fire balloons' campaign. As with the European foo fighters, no aircraft was reported as having been attacked by a "ball of fire." The postwar Robert Panel cited foo fighter reports, noting that their behavior did not appear to be threatening, and mentioned possible explanations, for instance that they were electrostatic phenomena similar to St. Elmo's fire, electromagnetic phenomena, or simply reflections of light from ice crystals. The Panel's report suggested that "If the term "flying saucers" has been popular in 1943-1945, these objects would have been so labeled." Foo fighters were reported on many occasions from around the world; a few examples are noted and they are. Sightings from September 1941 in the Indian Ocean was similar to some later foo fighter reports. From the deck of the S.S. Pulaski (a Polish merchant vessel transporting British troops) two sailors reported a "strange globe glowing with greenish light, about half the size of the full moon as it appeared to us. They alerted a British officer, who watched the object's movements with them for over an hour. Charles R. Bastien of the Eighth Air Force reported one of the first encounters with foo fighters over the Belgium/Netherlands area; he described them as "two fog lights flying at high rates of speed that could change direction rapidly." During debriefing, his intelligence officer told him that two RAF night fighters had reported the same thing, and it was later reported in British newspapers. Career U.S Air Force pilot Duane Adams often related that he had witnessed two occurrences of a bright light which paced his aircraft for about half an hour and then rapidly ascended into the sky. Both incidents occurred at night, both over the South Pacific, and both were witnessed by the entire aircraft crew. The first sighting occurred shortly after the end of World War II while Adams piloted a B-25 bomber. The second sightings occurred in the early 1960s when Adams was piloting a KC-135 tanker. Author Renato Vesco revived the wartime theory that the foo fighters were a Nazi secret weapon in his work 'Intercept UFO' reprinted in a revised English edition as "Man-Made UFOs: 50 Years Of Suppression' in 1994. Vesco claims that the foo fighters were in fact a form of ground-launched automatically guided jet-propelled flak mine called the Feuerball (Fireball). The device, operated by special SS units, supposedly resembled a tortoise shell in shape, and flew by means of gas jets that spun like a Catherine wheel around the fuselage. Miniature klystron tubes inside the device, in combination with the gas jets, created the foo fighters' characteristic glowing spheroid apppearance. A crude form of collision avoidance radar ensured the craft would not crash into another airborne object, and an on board sensor mechanism would even instruct the machine to depart swiftly if it was fired upon. Ye purpose of the Feuerball, according to Vesco, was two-fold. The appearances of this weird device inside a bomber stream would (and indeed did) have a distracting and disruptive effect on the bomber pilots; and Vesco alleges that the device were also intended to have an offensive capability. Electrostatic discharges from the klystron tubes would, he states, interfere with the ignition systems of the bombers' engines, causing the planes to crash. Although there is no hard evidence to support the reality of the Feuerball drone, this theory has been taken up by other aviation/ufology authors, and has even been cited as the most likely explanation for the phenomena in at least one recent television documentary on Nazi secret weapons. A type of electrical discharge from airplanes' wigs (see St. Elmo's Fire) has been suggested as an explanation, since it has been known to appear at the wingtips of aircraft. It has also been pointed out that some of the descriptions of foo fighters closely resemble those of ball lightning. During April 1945, the US Navy began to experiment on visual illusions as experienced by night tie aviators. This work began the US Navy's Bureau of Medicine (BUMED) project X-148, AV-4-3. This project pioneered the study of aviators' vertigo and was initiated because a wide variety of anomalous events were being reported by night time aviators. Dr. Edgar Vinacke, who was the premier flight psychologist on this project, summarized the need for a cohesive and systemic outline of the epidemiology of aviator's vertigo as,"Pilots do not have sufficient information about phenomena of disorientation, and, as a corollary, are given considerable disorganized, incomplete, and inaccurate information. They are largely dependent upon their own experience, which must supplement and interpret the traditions about 'vertigo' which are passed on to them. When a concept thus grows out of anecdotes cemented together with practical necessity, it is bound to acquire elements of mystery. So far as 'vertigo' is concerned, no one really knows more than a small part of the facts, but a great deal of the peril. Since aviators are not skilled observers of human behavior, they usually have only the vaguest understanding of their own feelings. Like other naive persons, therefore, they have simply adopted a term to cover a multitude of otherwise inexplicable events."Well that is it my post on Foo Fighters I hope that you enjoyed this post and if you would like to know more about Foo Fighters then you can go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foo_fighter that is also where I got my information for this post. If you have a request feel free to make your request and I would be happy to write a post for you. I always take request.